Leading is the space between lines of text and is generally measured from baseline to baseline of each sentence. Leading is important when setting paragraphs because it influences the legibility of the text. If there is no leading then lines will feel cramped. If there is too much leading then the space will create disconnected lines.
There are different ways to change leading depending on the program you use. The rule of thumb is to use a leading that is 2 pts above the font’s height. For example, if you are using a 10pt font then the leading should be 12pts. This can vary depending on the font – different fonts need different linespacing.
Tracking and Kerning
Tracking and Kerning are similar in that they both refer to the adjustment of space between type.
So, what’s the difference? Tracking is the adjustment of space between a GROUP of letters. Kerning is the adjustment of space between individual letters. Tracking should be adjusted so letters don’t run into each other during the printing stage. It also helps by improving the readability and density of text.
Kerning is effective and improves the overall readability for headlines, ALL CAPS, and logos. Kerning can be helpful, but don’t get carried away. If a company’s name is meant to be one word, don’t make it look like two.
Serif vs. San-Serif Fonts
Serifs are those dash-structures added at the end of letters and symbols. When it comes to lengthy books or magazines, using a serif type is the best. Serifs sit better on the baseline and help lead the reader’s eye to the next word. This makes reading more sustainable for longer periods of time.
San-serifs are typefaces without serifs. San-serifs look simpler and are easier to read at lower-resolutions. Web designs often use san-serif fonts such as Verdana, Arial, etc.
Number of typefaces
Pairing different type faces can make your layout dynamic, but using too many can be distracting. When too many fonts are used the viewer becomes unclear of what elements are important.
The general rule is to use three or less fonts per project. For example, two fonts are used for the headline and body text. The fonts could then be bolded, italicized, and sized for subheadings, CAPTIONS, and other design elements.
The longer the design document, the more fonts you can use. However, when it comes to brochures, ads, or any other short documents it is better to use one or two fonts.
Length of Text Lines
When looking at a newspaper, you might notice the articles are divided into columns. Shorter lines of text help break up the articles so they are easier to read. The human eye naturally tires when it reads long lines of text.
Although the exact character count is difficult to predict, the general rule is to have no more than 50-60 characters on each line. This is a standard number and should be altered depending on the design project.
The same rule can apply to headlines. Although headlines are generally less than 50 characters, shortening the one-line sentence can be beneficial. For example, if you are working with the heading, “Hundreds of Design Opportunities at Your Fingertips,” you can make it easier to read by breaking it apart:
Make sure to cut the sentence so it keeps a flow in the viewer’s reading. Also, don’t be scared to play with font size so the lines match up.
Although these 5 rules are important, there are a ton of other typography rules to learn… here’s a cool place to start: ilovetypography.com